Out-of-flat condition generally introduced during cold-rolling of metal or alloy coils. Edge waves are more common and generally can be minimized by allowing for “dropping a cut” during edge slitting. It is also possible to produce wavy edges during slitting.


(See Crown) In any given coil the variance in width from one edge to the opposite edge. Because USSM buys narrow width (12″ to 14″) coils slit from wider coils, the wedge effect presents an on-going problem in shape and gauge control.


The feasibility of welding a particular metal or alloy. A number of factors affect weldability including chemistry, surface finish, heat-treating tendencies, etc.


Any cold finish round, square, octagon, hexagon or shape 1/2″ and under in diameter or size. Any cold-finished flat 1/16″ to 3/8″ in width and 0.010 to under 3/16″ in thickness.

Wire and Sheet Metal Gauge

Conversions in decimals of an inch (see next page.)

Work Hardening

The hardness developed in metal as a result of cold work. The degree to which hardness and strength increases varies widely with different metals and alloys. Among the stainless steels the chromium-nickel grades are by far the most responsive.


A wavy condition obtained in drawing in the area of the metal that passes over the draw radius. Wrinkling may also occur in other reforming operations when unbalanced compressive forces are set up.

Wrought Iron

An iron produced by direct reduction of ore or by refining molten cast iron under conditions where a pasty mass of solid iron with included slag is produced. The iron has a low carbon content.

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