A large vessel into which molten metal or molten slag is received and handled. Molten metal may be transported short distances by carrying it in a ladle.


Defects resulting from the presence of blisters, seams or foreign inclusions aligned parallel to the work surface of the strip. Unfortunately “lamination” is used as a catchall term for any and all surface defects.


A discontinuity appearing as a seam caused from folding over during hot-rolling.

Lauders lines

Elongated surface markings or depressions caused by localized plastic deformation that results from discontinuous (in homogeneous) yielding. Also known as Lauders bands, Hartmann lines, Piobert lines, or stretcher strains.

Leveling Line

A process to flatten any shape deficiencies (wavy edges and buckles)in the sheet, prior to final shipment. Most cold-rolled sheet initially has a crowned cross-section that, if such a shape is desirable to the customer, must be flattened in the leveling line.

Line Mark

Identification of material, using an inked wheel, or jet printer which prints on the strip.


Partial melting of an alloy.

Longitudinal Direction

The principal direction of flow in a worked metal.

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