Dead Soft Temper

Condition of maximum softness commercially attainable in wire, strip, or sheet metal in the annealed state.


A method whereby the raw slit edge of metal is removed by rolling or filing.


Removal of carbon from the outer surface of iron or steel, usually by heating in an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. Water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide are strong decarburizers. Reheating with adhering scale is also strongly decarburizing in action.


A departure of any quality characteristic from its intended (usually specified) level that is severe enough to cause the product or service to not fulfill its anticipated function. According to ANSI standard, defects are classified according to severity.

  • Very serious defects lead directly to severe injury or significant economic loss.
  • Serious defects lead directly to significant injury or significant economic loss.
  • Major defects are related to major problems with respect to anticipated use.
  • Minor defects are related to minor problems with respect to anticipated use.


A quality control term describing a unit of product or service containing at least one defect, or having several lesser imperfections that, in combination, cause the unit not to fulfill its anticipated function. NOTE

Degassing Process (in steel making)

Removing gases from the molten metal by means of a vacuum process in combination with mechanical action.


Removal of grease, oil or other lubricant-type materials by immersion in an effective solvent. At Ulbrich, primarily alkaline cleaners are used, although an organic solvent is available.


(1) Removal of oxygen from molten metals by use of suitable chemical agents. (2) Sometimes refers to removal of undesirable elements other than oxygen by the introduction of elements or compounds that readily react with them.

Developed Hardness

Hardness capability of a metal or alloy after a hardening heat- treating process.


(1) Spreading of a constituent in a gas, liquid or solid, tending to make the composition of all parts uniform. (2) The spontaneous movement of atoms or molecules to new sites within a material.


A change in the visual appearance of the material caused by formation of oxides when exposed to contaminating atmosphere, always at elevated temperatures.

Dissociated Ammonia

A low-cost substitute for a pure Hydrogen atmosphere generally used in bright annealing or hardening stainless steels and other metals and alloys. Dissociated Ammonia is 75% Hydrogen and 25% Nitrogen. It must be used in a very low dew point (i.e. -60°F) to ensure that the moisture content is low in order to avoid oxidation of the surface of the metal or alloy being heat-treated.

Doctor Blade Steel

Strip A hardened and tempered spring steel strip, usually blued, produced from approximately .85 carbon cold-rolled spring steel strip specially selected for straightness and good edges. Sometimes hand-straightened or straightened by grinding and cut to desired lengths. This product is used in the printing trade as a blade to uniformly remove excess ink (dope) from the rolls; hence its name.

Dry-Rolled Finish

Finish obtained by cold-rolling on polished rolls without the use of any coolant or metal lubricant, of material previously plain pickled, giving a burnished appearance.


Dumping occurs when imported merchandise is sold in or for export to the domestic market at less than the normal value of the merchandise – that is, at a price that is less than the price at which identical or similar merchandise is sold in the comparison market, the home market (the market of the exporting country), or third-country market (in this case, “market” is used as proxy to “home market” in cases where home market cannot be used). The normal value of the merchandise cannot be below the cost of production.


Steels exhibiting both austenitic and ferritic structures and characteristics.


The ability to accept permanent deformation.

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