Niobium Type 1 & 2 UNS R03400 UNS R04210

Niobium is a metallic element on the periodic table of elements. Applications of niobium include welding, nuclear industries, electronics, optics, numismatics, and jewelry.

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Niobium Type 1 & 2 Strip, Coil, Foil, Wire

NIOB1 (Type 1 Reactor Grade Unalloyed)

NIOB2 (Type 2 Commercial Grade Unalloyed)



Niobium also known as columbium, is a very soft refractory metal with the symbol Nb on the periodic table. This chemical element is resistant to high temperature conditions because it has an extremely high melting point and properties that grant it corrosion resistance. Metallic Niobium appears as a silvery metal, which gets it's corrosion resistance due to a layer of oxide on its surface. It exhibits high thermal/electric conductivity, is easily fabricated, and bio-compatible. In terms of applications of this material, Niobium metal, due to its variety of properties, is used in several areas, one of which is creating magnets. One of the strongest superconducting magnet applications in the world uses niobium alloy wires. Niobium is also used in superconducting magnets for particle accelerators, MRI scanners and NMR equipment. Niobium is added as an alloying element in other metals, including stainless steel. The inclusion of Niobium improves the strength of the alloys, particularly at low temperatures. Niobium oxide compounds are added to glass to increase the refractive index, which allows corrective glasses to be made with thinner lenses.



The forming characteristics of niobium and niobium alloys should be similar to copper and some mild steels. A copper blank is sometimes attempted before utilizing niobium. Niobium sheet metal can be formed easily without special working techniques. These operations are facilitated by niobium’s low rate of work hardening. There are two unusual features that must be considered when working with niobium and its alloys. First, no appreciable softening occurs below 400°C (752°F), because of its high melting point. Also, sheathing protection is not practical, since the sheathing material is likely to be softer than the niobium. Niobium’s cold working properties are excellent. Annealing is necessary after the surface has been worked 90%, with heat treatment at 1200°C (2192°F) for one hour causing complete recrystallization of material cold worked over 50%. The annealing must be performed in an inert gas, or preferably, in a high vacuum.

Deep Draw Operations

Deep drawing of annealed niobium can be accomplished without much difficulty. Tool materials such as steel, aluminum bronzes, and beryllium copper can all be used for drawing operations. Single draws can be made if the depth of the draw does not exceed the diameter of the blank, and if multiple draws are made, the depth of the first draw should not exceed 40% of the blank diameter. For multiple draws, it may necessary to perform an intermediate vacuum anneal. Sulfonated tallow can be used as a lubricant.

Chemistry: Ingot

Element Type 1 Reactor Grade Type 2 Commercial Grade

Niobium Balance Balance Carbon 0.01 0.01 Nitrogen 0.01 0.01 Oxygen 0.015 0.025 Hydrogen 0.0015 0.0015 Zirconium 0.02 0.02 Tantalum 0.1 0.3 Iron 0.005 0.005 Silicon 0.005 0.005 Tungsten 0.03 0.05 Nickel 0.005 0.005 Molybdenum 0.020 0.020 Hafnium 0.02 0.02 Titanium 0.02 0.02

Below Elements Specified

Boron 2ppm -- Aluminum 0.002 .005 Beryllium 0.005 -- Chromium 0.005 -- Cobalt 0.002 --

Physical Properties

Density: 0.310 lbs/in3, 8.66 g/cm3

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, in/in/° F (mm/m/° C) 70 - 212 °F (20 - 100 ° C): 4.05 x 10-6 (7.3)

Thermal Conductivity: (W/m-° K) (21 ° C): 53.7

Modulus of Elasticity, ksi (MPa) 1.52 x 103 (104.9 x 103) in tension

Melting Point: 4490 ° F (2477 ° C)


Niobium Coils

  • Niobium Strip
  • Niobium Foil
  • Niobium Ribbon

Niobium Wire

  • Niobium Shaped Wire & Profile Wire
  • Niobium Round Wire
  • Niobium Flat Wire
  • Niobium Square Wire

Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature

Annealed: Typical

Ultimate Tensile Strength: 18 KSI min (124 MPa min) Yield Strength (0.2% offset): 10.5 KSI min (72 MPa min) Elongation: Gauges: less than 0.010 inches: 15% min Gauges: 0.010 inches and greater: 20% min

*Gauges: less than 0.010 inches: 15% min Gauges: 0.010 inches and greater: 20% min

Limitation of Liability and Disclaimer of Warranty: In no event will Ulbrich Stainless Steels & Special Metals, Inc., be liable for any damages arising from the use of the information included in this document or that it is suitable for the 'applications' noted. We believe the information and data provided to be accurate to the best of our knowledge but, all data is considered typical values only. It is intended for reference and general information and not recommended for specification, design or engineering purposes. Ulbrich assumes no implied or express warranty in regard to the creation or accuracy of the data provided in this document.

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