316 Stainless Steel UNS S31600
Type 316 (UNS 31600) is an austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steel alloy containing molybdenum. This addition increases corrosion resistance, improves resistance to pitting chloride ion solutions and provides increased strength at elevated temperatures.
316 Stainless Steel Strip, Coil, Foil, Wire, ASTM A666, AMS5524
316 Stainless Steel Applications
- Pulp and Paper Equipment
- Heat exchangers
- Propeller shafts
- Dyeing Equipment
- Exterior Architectural components in Marine Coastal Areas
What is 316 Stainless Steel?
Type 316 (UNS 31600) is an austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steel alloy containing molybdenum. This addition increases corrosion resistance, improves resistance to pitting chloride ion solutions and provides increased strength at elevated temperatures. Properties of this austenitic stainless steel grade are similar to those of type 304 except that type 316 is somewhat stronger at elevated temperature ranges. In regards to formability, 304 stainless is usually a better option for forming operations because the higher molybdenum content in Grade 316 means that it possesses higher strength and work-hardening rates which can have adverse effects on formability. While 316 can typically be drawn and formed in a similar fashion to 304, temperature variations can make those processes challenging. For instance, the 316 alloy may become magnetic when cold worked.
Corrosion resistance is improved, particularly against sulfuric, hydrochloric, acetic, formic and tartaric acids, as well as corrosion caused by acid sulfates and alkaline chlorides.
The low carbon version of 316 Stainless is 316L Stainless Steel which has increased resistance to intergranular corrosion.
Carbon: 0.08 max Manganese: 2.00 max Silicon: 1.00 max Chromium: 16.00-18.00 Nickel: 10.00-14.00 Molybdenum: 2.00-3.00 Phosphorus 0.040 Sulfur: 0.030 max Copper: 0.75 max Iron: Balance
Physical Properties of 316 Stainless Steel
Density: 0.29 lbs/in3 7.99 g/cm3
Electrical Resistivity: microhm-in (microhm-cm):
68 ° F (20 ° C): 29.4 (74.0)
Specific Heat: BTU/lbl° F (kJ/kg•K):
32 - 212 ° F (0 - 100 °C): 0.12 (0.50)
Thermal Conductivity: BTU/hr/ft2/ft/°F (W/m•K):
At 212 °F (100 °C): 9.4 (16.2)
At 932 °F (500 °C): 12.4 (21.4)
Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: in/inl°F (µm/m•K)
32 - 212 °F (0 - 100 °C): 8.9 x 10-5 (16.0)
32 - 600 °F (0 - 315 °C): 9.0 x 10-5 (16.2)
32 - 1000 °F (0- 538 °C): 9.7 x 10-5 (17.5)
32 - 1200 °F (0 - 649 °C): 10.3 x 10-5 (18.5)
32 - 1500 °F (0 - 871 °C): 11.1 x 10-5 (18.5)
Modulus of Elasticity: ksi (MPa)
28 x 103 (193 x 103) in tension
11 .2 x 103 (77 x 103) in torsion
Magnetic Permeability: H = 200 Oersteds: Annealed < 1.02 max
Melting Range: 2500 - 2590 °F (1371 - 1421 °C)
Coil - Strip, Foil, Ribbon Wire - Profile, Round, Flat, Square
Mechanical Properties of 316 Stainless Steel at Room Temperature
Ultimate Tensile Strength: 75 KSI min (515 MPa min) Yield Strength (0.2% Offset): 30 KSI min (205 MPa min) Elongation: 40% min Hardness: Rb 95 max
Ultimate Tensile Strength: 85 KSI min (585 MPA min)
Yield Strength: (0.2% Offset) 45 KSI min (310 MPA min)
Elongation: 35% Min
Ultimate Tensile Strength: 100 KSI min (690 MPA min)
Yield Strength: (0.2% Offset) 55 KSI min (380 MPA min)
Elongation: 25% Min
Ultimate Tensile Strength: 125 KSI min (860 MPA min)
Yield Strength: (0.2% Offset) 75 KSI min (515 MPA min)
Elongation: 10% Min
Type 316 can be rolled to achieve the temper properties required by specific customers and/or manufacturing requirements. For tempers 1/2 hard or above consult Ulbrich Technical Services for more information.
Additional Properties of 316 Stainless Steel
Corrosion Resistance of 316 Stainless Steel
Refer to NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers) for recommendations.
# 1 - Hot rolled annealed and descaled. It is available in strip, foil and ribbon. It is used for applications where a smooth decorative finish is not required.
# 2D - Dull finish produced by cold rolling, annealing and descaling. Used for deep drawn parts and those parts that need to retain lubricants in the forming process. # 2B - Smooth finish produced by cold rolling, annealing and descaling. A light cold rolling pass is added after anneal with polished rolls giving it a brighter finish than 2D.
#BA - Bright annealed cold rolled and bright annealed
#CBA - Course bright annealed cold rolled matte finish and bright anneal
#2 - Cold Rolled # 2BA- Smooth finish produced by cold rolling and bright annealing. A light pass using highly polished rolls produces a glossy finish. A 2BA finish may be used for lightly formed applications where a glossy finish is desired in the formed part. Polished - Various grit finish for specific polish finished requirements.
* Not all finishes are available in all alloys - Contact Ulbrich Sales for more information.
XC - Extra clean bright annealed or bright annealed and cold rolled Grease - Ultra-bright finish (for decorative applications) Soap - Soap is not removed from tempered wire to act as a lubricant. * Contact Ulbrich Wire for custom wire finishes.
Type 316 can be readily formed and drawn.
Type 316 is non hardenable by heat treatment.
Welding 316 Stainless Steel
Type 316 is weldable by common fusion and resistance methods. It can develop intergranular corrosion in the welded areas due to the high carbon content. For best results refer to: SSINA's "Welding of Stainless Steels and Other Joining Methods".
Limitation of Liability and Disclaimer of Warranty: In no event will Ulbrich Stainless Steels & Special Metals, Inc., be liable for any damages arising from the use of the information included in this document or that it is suitable for the 'applications' noted. We believe the information and data provided to be accurate to the best of our knowledge but, all data is considered typical values only. It is intended for reference and general information and not recommended for specification, design or engineering purposes. Ulbrich assumes no implied or express warranty in regard to the creation or accuracy of the data provided in this document.